By Dr. Robert G. Coleman (auth.)
I was once invited to jot down this ebook as a part of the Minerals, Rocks and natural fabrics sequence of Springer-Verlag through Professor Peter J. Wyllie in 1974. Ophiolites have preoccupied me ever considering that 1948 as a graduate scholar and as much as the current time as a part of my examine with the U.S. Geological Survey. in this interval ophiolite, an imprecise eu geological time period, has attained an ever-increasing value, is now used to incorporate all fragments of old oceanic lithosphere integrated into the orogenic zones of recent and historic continental margins, and is a customary a part of the plate tectonic paradigm. the aim of this publication is to supply a kick off point for somebody attracted to the heritage and kingdom of data touching on ophiolites (ancient oceanic lithosphere). simply because ophiolites symbolize fragments of previous oceanic crust their tectonic environment and age are very important within the reconstruction of historical plate barriers. current day plate tectonic theories contain the new release and disposal of oceanic lithosphere, in order that those old fragments of oceanic lithosphere can be utilized on to reconstruct stipulations in the historic oceans. for the reason that 1970, a variety of conferences and meetings at once relating to ophiolites have prompted all over the world curiosity within the topic. As a part of the foreign Correlation software, the venture "Ophiolites of Continents and similar Oceanic Rocks," used to be initiated through Dr. N. Bogdanov, Geological Institute, Moscow. This undertaking has introduced jointly a world workforce that has considering the exceptional difficulties and is now generating an international map of ophiolite distribution.
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Additional resources for Ophiolites: Ancient Oceanic Lithosphere?
Thus the leucocratic rocks of the ophiolites differ distinctly from continental granophyres on the basis of their normative feldspar contents. Differentiation trends that give rise to the oceanic plagiogranites can be illustrated by the triangular AFM diagram (Fig. 18). By using the average subalkaline oceanic basalt (Troodos) as the starting liquid, it is evident that the ophiolite leucocratii:: rocks follow the tholeiite (Thingmuli) differentiation trend rather than a calc-alkaline trend. Perhaps the most important chemical characteristic of the ophiolite sequence is the extremely low potassium content.
In nearly all occurrences of ophiolites, harzburgite is the dominant rock type; however, in some instances, dunite may be predominant (see for instance, Ragan, 1963; Challis, 1965). The harzburgites generally have a xenoblastic granular texture and consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, and chromian spinel. The grain size is quite variable as many of these rocks show recrystallization textures and it is difficult to establish original grain boundaries. Orthopyroxene grains average 2-4 mm and many contain clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae.
4 Chemistry The cumulate rocks of ophiolite complexes show a wide range in composition and for the purposes of this discussion, are divided into two main groups: (1) ultramafic cumulates; (2) mafic cumulates (Table 4). The ultramafic cumulates are most commonly found in the Part III. Igneous Petrology 42 Table 4. 72 Norms calculated on conversion of all Fe 2 0 3 to FeO, deletion of H 2 0 and COz and normalizing (1) Troctolite, Semail ophiolite, Oman, Glennie et al. 7. (2) Troctolite, Masirah Island, Oman, Glennie et al.