By Thomas R. Van De Water, Hinrich Staecker
An perfect introductory textual content and board review!
Here is an entire source for all of the uncomplicated technology and medical wisdom with regards to otolaryngology, from correct molecular biology to body structure to medical perform. It deals very good assurance of all key themes with one target in brain -- to supply an exceptional starting place for the certainty and perform of this assorted strong point. either finished and succinct, this booklet is a perfect assessment textual content and research instrument for citizens getting ready for his or her board exams.
Organized into six organ-specific sections, the publication offers such key scientific info as: simple ideas of allergic ailments, the oncology of head and neck tumors, the biology and checking out of olfactory disorder, neurological problems of the larynx, sleep apnea administration, operating with listening to aids and cochlear implants, and lots more and plenty extra. every one bankruptcy incorporates a bankruptcy define, various tables, and Self-Test Questions with their solutions to make sure thorough comprehension. additionally, you will locate greater than 350 illustrations demonstrating vital concepts.
This ebook is a useful source for citizens taking their forums and an invaluable refresher for working towards otolaryngologists in any respect degrees. it's the one reference you are going to flip to back and again.
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Extra resources for Otolaryngology: Basic Science and Clinical Review
Contracture (shortening of the scar) may be associated with deformity, causing loss of function, cosmetic distortion, or impairment in range of motion. In contrast, contraction is a functional part of wound healing that occurs in an open wound, reducing the wound surface as the contraction proceeds. All contracture is caused by contraction, but not all contraction results in contracture. Aggressive management of hypertrophic scars will force their improvement in a shorter time period. See Figs.
Neutrophils follow platelets into the wound area, guided by chemoattractant factors including complement, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF-␣), TGF-␤, and platelet factor 4. Neutrophils debride the wound by phagocytosis of foreign matter, damaged cells, and bacteria. Though TABLE 2-2 FACTORS INVOLVED IN INITIATING WOUND HEALING Hemostatic Factors Function Histamine Plasma fibronectin, fibrin Factor XIII Circulatory growth factors Complement Capillary vasodilatation and increased permeability Adhesion, chemoattraction, coagulation, scaffolding for cell migration Induces adhesion and chemoattraction Regulate chemoattraction, fibroplasia, mitogenesis Stimulates antimicrobial activity, chemoattraction Platelet-Derived Factors Function Cytokines and growth factors Regulation of chemoattraction, fibroplasia, and mitogenesis, ligand for platelet aggregation and matrix formation Platelet aggregation Chemotaxis, platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction Chemotactic attraction for fibroblasts, monocytes Neutralize heparin activity, inhibit collagenase; chemotactic for neutrophils, induce vascular permeability Stimulate cell proliferation and migration, induce platelet aggregation Stimulate cell proliferation and migration, induce platelet aggregation Fibronectin Platelet-activation factor Thromboxane A2 Platelet factor IV Serotonin Adenosine dinucleotide 14 CHAPTER 2 WOUND HEALING TABLE 2-3 GROWTH FACTOR ACTIVITY IN WOUND HEALING Growth Factors Cell Source Activity TGF-␣ Platelets, macrophages, keratinocytes TGF-␤ Platelets, macrophages, lymphocytes PDGF EGF Platelets, macrophages, keratinocytes, endothelial cells Macrophages, neural tissue, nearly ubiquitous Platelets, keratinocytes, salivary gland IGF Liver Activates neutrophils, mitogen for fibroblast stimulates angiogenesis Stimulates fibroplasia and angiogenesis, induces proliferation of many different cells Chemoattractant for neutrophils, fibroblasts, mitogen for smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts Stimulates endothelial cell growth, mitogen for mesodermal and neuroectodermal-derived cells Mitogen for keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts Mitogen for fibroblasts; stimulates smooth muscle cells, lymphocytes, and chondrocytes FGF EGF, epidermal growth factor; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; PDGF, platelet derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor.
SPECIFIC NUTRITIONAL FACTORS AND THEIR EFFECT ON WOUND HEALING Optimum healing occurs only in the presence of optimum circumstances. It is well known that grossly malnourished patients experience delayed wound healing and increased rates of wound infection. These factors can be reversed. The marked increase in energy demands and the caloric requirements that can lead to cannibalization of lean body mass contribute significantly to morbidity. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that malnourished patients whose caloric needs are met during the week before surgery can exhibit normal wound healing capacity.