By Randall Thomas, Amory Lovins
Photovoltaic structures (PVs) produce electrical energy at once from sunlight radiation and have gotten extra frequent as their merits turn into obvious. This new advisor presents an outline of ways PVs paintings and the way they're integrated within the layout of structures, giving designers a good suggestion of the diversity and adaptability of PVs and in their layout and aesthetic power. Seven modern case reviews illustrate the use and alertness of photovoltaic structures.
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Additional info for Photovoltaics and architecture
PCUs currently cost in the region of £800–1000 (uninstalled) per kW output for 3–5kW systems and less for larger systems due, in part, to economies of scale. For example, a 70kW DC to three phase AC PCU will have an uninstalled cost of about £42,000 or £600 per kW output. This works out to an uninstalled cost of roughly £70/m2 of crystalline silicon module. Metering is a small element of BOS costs. A simple one-way meter might cost £200–400 (uninstalled); two-way meters (see Chapter 5) will cost in the region of £400–700 (uninstalled).
3. PCUs have an expected lifetime of 20 years or more. 4. Safety is, as ever, a paramount consideration. The particular issues of PV electricity such as the production of current in a wide variety of light conditions need to be known to all. 5. Monitoring of the installation is useful for identifying any problems and for reviewing performance. 6. PV cable runs need to be integrated with the building design. 7. Plant room space needs to be allotted for the PCU and associated equipment. The plant room needs to be ventilated.
Inverters can operate over a range of voltages – for example, at the BRE Environmental Building the inverter is set at a voltage range of 75–150V DC and converts to 240V 50Hz AC. 3. The choice depends on a number of factors including the module conﬁguration, accessibility, cost, overshadowing, and plant room planning. 3(a) the array has been divided into two halves, or sub-arrays, each supplying one inverter. This can be a way of reducing DC cabling losses but needs to be balanced against the cost of two inverters rather than one.