By Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall
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Extra info for Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary and Optical Microscopy of Historic Pigments
Amorphous apatite, ‘collophane’, has been identified in Hellenistic Greek art (Kakoulli, 2003). Apatite is likely to be a constituent of rock varieties including ochres and some limestones. ). ). The name apatite comes from the Greek ␣␣␣, meaning ‘to deceive’. It was derived due to the superficial similarities between this mineral and others (particularly beryls), due to its wide range in colours and also for its common but inconspicuous presence in many rocks due to its small grain size. Calcium group; Calcium phosphates group; Bone; Dahllite; Fluorapatite; Hydroxylapatite; Pyromorphite; Bone black; Ivory black Beevers & McIntyre (1946); Kakoulli (2003); LeGeros (1994); LeGeros et al.
Salter (1869) also defines Antwerp brown as the form of the asphalt pigment in drying oil, as opposed to turpentine. ’ This appears to be for the copper arsenite compound commonly known as Scheele’s green. Blue Synonym, variant or common name Chalk; Scheele’s green Fishwick (1795–1816) 138 Fluorite Richter et al. (2001) In the earlier nineteenth century Antwerp blue was identified as a copper-based pigment (for example, de Massoul, 1797; Ibbetson, 1803; Compendium, 1808). ). Late nineteenth century authors such as Martel (1860), Seward (1889) and Church (1901) all describe Antwerp blue as modified forms of Prussian blue containing alumina or sometimes ‘carbonate of magnesia and carbonate of zinc’ (Martel).
There is theoretically complete solid solution between the end-members. Pure fluorapatite is hexagonal; chlorapatites and hydroxylapatites belong to the monoclinic crystal system. The structures of these groups are described by Beevers and MacIntyre (1946), Mackie et al. (1972), LeGeros et al. (1960) and LeGeros (1994). Apatite will crystallise in four distinct environments: 1. As ‘igneous apatite’ in rocks crystallising from a siliceous or carbonatitic magma where it commonly adopts the fluorine end-member, fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F.