By Marchelle Marx
This ebook makes a speciality of methods & Lipids in Metabolic Biochemistry. content material: disguise; desk of Contents; bankruptcy 1 -- Carbohydrate Metabolism; bankruptcy 2 -- Photosynthesis; bankruptcy three -- mobile respiratory; bankruptcy four -- ldl cholesterol; bankruptcy five -- Eicosanoid; bankruptcy 6 -- Fatty Acid; bankruptcy 7 -- Phospholipid; bankruptcy eight -- Sphingolipid and Steroid; bankruptcy nine -- Triglyceride; bankruptcy 10 -- Bile Acid; summary: This publication specializes in approaches & Lipids in Metabolic Biochemistry
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During this quantity of SUBCELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY we disguise a variety of subject matters of substantial organic value and feature persevered in our coverage of letting authors, instead of editors, make a decision the "natural" size in their articles. hence, we have now a few brief yet however major contributions, in addition to extra sizeable chapters.
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Additional info for Processes & lipids in metabolic biochemistry
Usually, only the total, HDL, and triglycerides are measured. For cost reasons, the VLDL is usually estimated as one-fifth of the triglycerides and the LDL is estimated using the Friedewald formula (or a variant): estimated LDL = [total cholesterol] − [total HDL] − [estimated VLDL]. VLDL can be calculated by dividing total triglycerides by 5. Direct LDL measures are used when triglycerides exceed 400 mg/dL. The estimated VLDL and LDL have more error when triglycerides are above 400 mg/dL. Given the well-recognized role of cholesterol in cardiovascular disease, it is surprising that some studies have shown an inverse correlation between cholesterol levels and mortality.
In the Varrentrapp reaction certain unsaturated fatty acids are cleaved in molten alkali, a reaction at one time of relevance to structure elucidation. Auto-oxidation and rancidity Unsaturated fatty acids undergo a chemical change known as auto-oxidation. The process requires oxygen (air) and is accelerated by the presence of trace metals. Vegetable oils resists this process because they contain antioxidants, such as tocopherol. Fats and oils often are treated with chelating agents such as citric acid to remove the metal catalysts.
Dietary sources Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides, with lesser amounts of phospholipids and cholesterol. As a consequence, all foods containing animal fat contain cholesterol to varying extents. Major dietary sources of cholesterol include cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork, poultry, and shrimp. Human breast milk also contains significant quantities of cholesterol. The amount of cholesterol present in plant-based food sources is generally much lower than animal based sources. In addition, plant products such as flax seeds and peanuts contain cholesterol-like compounds called phytosterols, which are suggested to help lower serum cholesterol levels.