By Mrinal K. Dewanjee
Among the available -emitting radionuclides, the nuclides of iodine have the best versatility in labeling either the hydrophilic and the lipophilic compounds which are utilized in biology and drugs. Biologically very important micrmolecules, semimacromolecules, and macromolecules were pointed out which, after iodination, virtually continue an analogous molecular configuration and related biologic specificity as these of the father or mother molecules. The a number of options for iodination and the medical use of iodinated items have made attainable the current prestige of the improvement of diagnostic nuclear medication. 125r, with a half-life of 60 days, has a vital function in aggressive protein-binding reviews. 131r comes in handy for measuring thyroid uptake, for the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma and metastasis, and for treatment. 1nr , with a fairly shorter half-life, is sort of perfect for thyroid workup and for a number of necessary categorised radiopharmaceutical. even if ~c is used extra greatly in diagnostic techniques, the radionuclides of iodine will constantly have a big position in biology and medication. a large amount of info is scattered within the literature in regards to the chemistry of radioiodination and the mechanism of tracer localization in cells and tissues. categorized peptides, proteins, and antibodies are generally used for protein turnover reports, receptor binding and tumor imaging reviews, and radioimmunoassay. the overall development within the use of tracers in medical nuclear drugs has been an evolution from 3H, 14C, 11C, and thirteen to one hundred twenty five , 131 and 123r to ~c and 111rn.
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Additional resources for Radioiodination: Theory, Practice, and Biomedical Applications
A limited amount of disposal of radioiodine is permitted as long as the tracer is sufficiently diluted to bring the level to concentrations that conform to guidelines (Table 5-2). Disposable contaminated items should be wrapped in a double layered polyethylene bag and placed in properly labeled radioactive waste containers to be sealed and disposed of as soon as possible. Disposal of liquid radioactive waste or washing of contaminated glassware and equipment in a regular sink connected to the municipal sewage system is illegal; liquid waste should be absorbed into porous material and disposed of properly.
16-18] The effective half-life of 131r on vegetation is about 5 days. The mean vegetation half-life 41 is about 14 days, although this varies with the growth rate and weathering of the different types of plants. If milk is contaminated with 131 1 at a concentration of 1 ~Ci/liter, an infant drinking 1 liter of milk per day will receive a total thyroid dose of about 16 rem per month. [19,20] Actions to protect the thyroid gland should be taken very quickly after radiation exposure. A thyroid scan in a local hospital will give a qualitative estimate of exposure and radioiodine uptake in the thyroid gland.
Gordon, G. , and Baedecker, P. 3 H 1231 , Nucl Phys A, 115, 611, 1968. , Freund, H. , and Fink, R. 48 keV transition in 125 1 decay, Nucl Phys A, 131, 343, 1969. Spejewski, E. , Hopke, P. , Levels in Te-119,Te-121,Te-123,Nucl Phys A,146,182, 1970. Lederer, C. , and Shirley, V. , New York, 1978, 597. Nass, H. , New 1-123 nuclear decay data, ~ Nucl Med, 20, 1216, 1979. Myers, W. , Radioiodine-125 in biomedicine: 1959-1984, ~ Nucl Med, 25, 1389, 1984. CHAPTER 3 PRINCIPLES OP MEASUREMENT OP RADIOIODINATED TRACERS AND RELATED INSTRUMENTS In 1948, nobel laureate (physics, 1961) Robert Hofstadter used the scintillation property of thallium activated sodium iodide [NaI(TI)] for measurement of the intensity of x-rays and i-rays.