Download Science and Technology in World History, Vol. 1: The Ancient by David Deming PDF

By David Deming

Technological know-how is a residing, natural job, the which means and figuring out of that have developed incrementally over human historical past. This booklet, the 1st in a approximately chronological sequence, explores the improvement of the method and significant principles of technology, in historic context, from precedent days to the decline of classical civilizations round three hundred A.D. It contains information particular to the histories of specialised sciences together with astronomy, drugs and physics--along with Roman engineering and Greek philosophy. It heavily describes the contributions of such participants as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the good, Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Seneca, Pliny the Elder, and Galen.

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Hippolytus (c. D. 165 –235), [Democritus] said that the ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others both are greater than with us, and in yet others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and of all water.

145 When his ally, the Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis, heard of Polycrates’ phenomenal fortune he was concerned. Amasis wrote a letter to Polycrates stating that if his unusual luck continued he would evoke the jealousy and wrath of the gods. Amasis counseled Polycrates to rid himself of his most valued possession so that his luck would not be entirely good. ”146 Polycrates thought about Amasis’ counsel for a while and finally decided the Pharaoh was correct. Accordingly, he boarded a ship and sailed out to deep water.

Empedocles (c. ) THEORY OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS In an attempt to reduce the complexity of the natural world to a primal substance, the Ionians had speculated as to the ultimate nature of matter. Thales put forth a conjecture that the primal substance was water, and Heraclitus claimed that it was fire. The chemical system that was finally adopted was Empedocles’ system of the four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. 38 Science and Technology in World History, Vol. 1 The four elements were hypothetical abstractions, with physical substances representing heterogeneous amalgamations of the four primaries.

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