By David Ownby, Mary Somers Heidhues
A dialogue of the improvement of mystery societies inside of China and between chinese language groups in colonial Southeast Asia within the past due 18th and nineteenth centuries.
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Additional resources for "Secret Societies" Reconsidered: Perspectives on the Social History of Modern South China and Southeast Asia
K. 2 percent of all nineteenth-century mass actions (Yang 1975, 197). Clearly, something was new about the early Qing period, though whether we can attribute this novelty to changes in social practices or peculiarities of our sources remains open to question. Second, if hui were new, how did eighteenth-century Chinese know how to form them? Where did the language and symbols of the hui come from, and why were these particular symbols used? Where did eighteenth-century Chinese get their rituals of fictive kinship, and what did they understand by these rituals?
D. "Jiaohui yuanliukao" [Study of the origins of sects and societies]. Reprinted in Xinhai geming [The 1911 Revolution], vol. 3: 99-111. Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe, 1957. Ter Haar, Barend J. 1992. The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History. J. Brill. Tiandihui [The Heaven and Earth Society]. 1980-88. Qing History Research Institute of People's University, and Number One Historical Archives of China, eds. Beijing: China People's University Press. Vols. 1-7. INTRODUCTION 33 Trocki, Carl A.
Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Chinese Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press. Schlegel, Gustave. 1866. Thian Ti Hwui: The Hung League or Heaven-Earth League. Batavia: Lange and Co. Sewell, William H. 1980. Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime to I 848. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Skinner, G. William. 1957. Chinese Society in Thailand: An Analytical History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. - - - . 1960. " Journal ofthe South Seas Society 16: 86--100.