By Antonio Santosuosso
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Extra info for Soldiers, Citizens, And The Symbols Of War: From Classical Greece To Republican Rome, 500-167 B.c. (History and Warfare.)
Were the war parry defeated, Athens wotlld be forced to accept the Perslans as overlords, and the old t y r ~ ~ n n party ~c~~l would triumph over the dernocrattc values of the rntddle classes of soctety and thus of the hoplites. The counc~lseems to have beer1 equally divided on t h ~ ~ssue, s so the vote ot the polem,~rchcould have Ineant victory e~therfor those who wanted to srt and walt or for the others who recogni~edthat confrontat~onwas ~nevitable,either sooner or later. The deciston rested w ~ t hCalilmachus.
1 450 1 3 . L about 40 ye'trs after the great battle, and who seems to have been one of the few tntellectuals uneasy about the warlike tendencies of- his society, could not help but express the same sense of wo~lderwhen dealing wlth Maratho11. The veterans "who a t Marathon fought with the Medes, for Athens and Hellas contetid~ng,/ and won the great battle . . (:. x 111 Asia Mtnor, the Perslans h,ad come 111to contitct wlth Greek culture, for Greek colonists had founded inost of the crties of Ionia, the name given to a region on the western shores of modern 'Turkey.
Rut the d i m ~ n ~ s h erole d of the cavalry also reflected the rnore egalttartan social pr~nciplesot rlie l~opllte era. First, '1s ment~oned,only the kery rich could buy ,111d keep horses. Second, the cavalry could receive the glum job of all the fighting by elilnlnating the fleeing enemy or by a flank or rear action. For t h ~ to s be acceptable, not only ~ n i l ~ t a rthlnk~ng y but also S O C I ~~I S S U I ~ ~ ~ I hdd O I I Sto c11'1nge. T h ~ h'lps pened with the Macedonlans of Philtp 11, a king surrounded by his arlsto- 20 Close Arrrry nvzd Pointed Specrrs cratlc Companions.