By Stavros Thomopoulos, Victor Birman, Guy M. Genin
Attachment of distinctive fabrics in engineering and surgical perform is a perennial problem. Bimaterial attachment websites are universal destinations for harm, repeated harm, and mechanical failure. Nature provides numerous powerful ideas to the problem of bimaterial attachment that vary from these present in engineering perform. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of diverse fabrics from a number of views. The textual content will concurrently elucidate traditional bimaterial attachments and description engineering rules underlying profitable attachments to the groups of tissue engineers and surgeons. incorporated an in-depth research of the biology of attachments within the physique and mechanisms through which strong attachments are shaped, a assessment of present suggestions of attaching assorted fabrics in surgical perform and a dialogue of bioengineering ways which are at the moment being constructed.
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Additional info for Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology
The through-the-thickness grading has a significant effect on buckling of truncated conical FGM shells undergoing hydrostatic pressure . An example of a finite element free vibration analysis of doubly curved shear-deformable shells with through-the-thickness grading is found in . A graded finite element was developed for FGM geometrically nonlinear shells accounting for shear deformability through the first-order theory in . Although thermal problems are avoided in our chapter, it is worth mentioning here the work analyzing thermomechanical behavior of FGM cylindrical shells with flowing fluid; this analysis may relate to problems of blood vessels that are also graded through their thickness .
Birman et al. 11) is statically indeterminate since there are six unknown stress resultants and stress couples in three equilibrium equations. This is a common feature of mechanics of solids, fluids, and gases. 10) and the strain–displacement relations omitted here for brevity. The latter relations can be either linear or nonlinear leading to geometrically linear or nonlinear problems, respectively. The boundary conditions are formulated in terms of displacements and rotations (kinematic conditions) and stress resultants and couples (static conditions).
While the stiffness of the plate varies due to the fiber content, at the insertion site the gradation of the stiffness is achieved through the orientation of collagen fibers and mineral content along the insertion. The final outcome is the structure optimized either for the highest eigenvalues (sandwich plate) or for the highest tensile load carrying capacity (insertion site). 6 Conclusions The current chapter outlined the principles and mathematical backgrounds of FGM in engineering. A review of representative recent studies of such materials was presented.