By Maurice E. Tucker
The strategies to be had for the examine of sediments and sedimentary rocks shape the point of interest of this booklet. whereas box features are integrated, better emphasis is put on the laboratory exam of sediments. each one bankruptcy presents introductory historical past fabric after which proceeds to a dialogue of approach, the gear, and its boundaries. A concluding part comprises examples of ways the recommendations can be utilized to resolve sedimentological difficulties.
Techniques in Sedimentology is an unrivalled textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate scholars and of serious use to many different geologists.
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Black mudstone - A . Black mudstone- - 2 — » • Sharp boundary between facies; occurs twice - 1 — G r a d a t i o n a l passage between facies; occurs once (b) (a) Fig. 46. (a) A facies relationship diagram for the Upper Carboniferous Abbotsham Formation of SW England showing both number and type of facies boundaries. (b) Pictorial representation of (a) and suggested sedimentary 'cycle'. ) E t h i e r (1975), H a t t o r i (1976) and C a n t & W a l k e r (1976). A first o r d e r M a r k o v process is a stochastic pro cess in which the^state of t h e system at time t„ is influenced by or d e p e n d e n t on t h e state of t h e system at time f„_ but not t h e previous history that led to the state at time t„-.
This must be b o r n e in mind during interpre tation and preferably presented on facies relation ship diagrams such as that in Fig. 46. T h u s M a r k o v analysis provides a powerful tool to test for o r d e r in vertical sequences. Techniques for investigating the n a t u r e of that o r d e r , where it exists, are less well developed b u t are available and allow for statistically definitive statements on vertical sequence. 62 J . 4 Non-Markov t e c h n i q u e s f o r sequence analysis Presentation and analysis of vertical sequences of rock is not limited to M a r k o v analysis.
44. Comparison of dip direction (arrows) and dip angle of trough cross-beds and hummocky beds in the Cape Sebastian Sandstone, Cretaceous, Oregon. Dots are poles to cross bedding; dots within the small circle represent dips less than 15° (from Bourgeois, 1980). ) (1977) suggested that, based purely o n g e o m e t r y , t h e r e are seven basic patterns (Fig. 45). g. g. by Potter & Pettijohn 1977). A t a smaller scale palaeocurrent d a t a can s u p p o r t environmental discrimination suggested by o t h e r criteria.