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Extra resources for Technological development and pollution abatement: a study of how enterprises are finding alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons, Volumes 23-271

Example text

278 Wijetilleke and Karunaratne, Air Quality Management: Considerations for Developing Countries No. 279 Anderson and Ahmed, The Case for Solar Energy Investments Page v Contents Foreword vii Abstract ix Acknowledgments xi Abbreviations and Acronyms xiii 1. Overview 1 Introduction 1 The Montreal Protocol 1 Uses of Ozone-Depleting Substances 2 Alternatives to CFCs and Related Substances 4 Costs of Compliance at the Enterprise Level 5 Findings 6 Aerosols 7 Solvents 7 Foam Blowing 9 Refrigerators and Air Conditioners 9 Fire-Extinguishing 9 2.

A significant move toward substitution has been apparent, with many firms developing alternatives and choosing to substitute earlier rather than later. In part, this is because some of the substitutes are simply lower in cost than the previous ozone-depleting solvent or because their use results in a better-quality product. Or it may be because there is a specific time ban for CFCs, and firms are unsure how availability and prices will vary nearer the time of the ban. The fact that in many cases, once identified, the alternative is fairly simple and straightforward to adopt has also helped early substitution.

Some alternatives are much cheaper, such as hydrocarbons, because of operating savings that arise from the lower cost of hydrocarbons compared with CFCs, which offset the capital costs. Much information can be found in the literature on the negative incremental cost of switching to hydrocarbon alternatives (World Bank [MP] 1992e; Hoffman 1990; UNEP 1991). Effect of Alternative on Rest of Product Examples of the type of changes that may be required on switching to the alternative include the need for thicker-walled aluminum containers if compressed-gas propellants such as carbon dioxide are used.

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