By Craig S. Farmer
This learn of Johannine exegesis within the 16th century covers approximately each vital commentator on John from the 1st half the century, and examines the medieval and patristic traditions on which they drew. yet whereas finished in its scope, this booklet facilities at the John observation of Wolfgang Musculus (1497- 1563), an influential chief of the Protestant Reformation within the towns of Augsburg and Bern. As a theologian and biblical pupil, he authored loads of theological and exegetical works which remained renowned good into the 17th century. regardless of his impact, notwithstanding, Musculus has been nearly neglected through smooth scholarship at the Reformation.
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Extra resources for The Gospel of John in the Sixteenth Century: The Johannine Exegesis of Wolfgang Musculus
That womb of the Virgin Mary ... 87 These themes are developed further by the medieval commentators; for them, the wedding at Cana becomes more and more an excuse for an extended discussion of the spiritual significance of marriage. 88 In the comments of Hugh and Denis, the emphasis on spiritual marriages overshadows the approval of human marriage implicit in Jesus' presence at the wed- On the Wedding at Cana 25 ding. While Hugh mentions the approval of ordinary marriage, his discussion centers on four types of spiritual marriage symbolized by the wedding at Cana: first, the marriage between God and human nature resulting in the incarnation; second, the marriage between Christ and the Church, discussed in the fifth chapter of Ephesians; third, the marriage between God and the soul, which takes place in the sacrament of penance; and fourth, the marriage that takes place between Christ and those who have bound themselves with monastic vows—that is, "between Christ and the religious" (inter Christum religiosum).
5 If his statement is correct, Musculus also studied under Johannes Sapidus, himself a former student at Selestat, who was appointed rector in December 1510, when Musculus would have been thirteen years old. In any case, both Gebwiler and Sapidus offered essentially the same educational curriculum, inspired by the spirit of the Northern Renaissance. On the Healing of the Ruler's Son 31 What books did Musculus read at Selestat? Although neither Musculus himself nor his son Abraham mention specific works, a glimpse of the daily curriculum at Selestat is provided by a letter from a student, Boniface Amerbach, written to his father in 1508: "You wrote in your letters that I should write you what our teacher does.
Christian compassion is not mere sentimentalism but expresses itself in a way modeled by the Virgin—namely in the confidence that Christ is willing and able to come to the assistance of those in need. 41 According to Musculus, the simplicity of Mary's request teaches two moral lessons. First, one must not exaggerate the excess or intemperance of those experiencing want. Mary does not come to Jesus as a complainer or accuser; "She does not say: They squandered and intemperately consumed all the wine.