By Eul-Soo Pang (auth.)
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Additional resources for The International Political Economy of Transformation in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile since 1960
Since 1990 economic development and growth in Latin America and Asia Paciﬁc have depended not only more on a country’s ability and agility to attract international capital and increase its exports to the world’s major markets, but also on a new economic structure that can absorb the jarring impacts of the currency ﬂuctuations and interest rates in the global ﬁnancial marketplace. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, as much as 60 percent of Japan’s trade surplus was derived from the US. Asian countries ran chronic deﬁcits with Japan and a perennial trade surplus with the US.
Now ﬁnancial globalization was complete. Latin America in the age of economic multipolarity The US economy had been under assault by the globalizing tendencies of the world economy and its key actors. The devaluation of the US dollar in relation to the Japanese yen – by mid-1995, the dollar sank to the historic low of 80 yen – and other European currencies had devastating effects on the US economy and especially its ﬁscal policy. Prominent US academics and government ofﬁcials had predicted since the mid-1980s that the dollar’s devaluation would make US goods cheaper and more attractive: hence, Japan would import more.
A full 45 percent of the country’s industry was foreign owned. The civilian regimes since 1930 had given lip service to democracy, but in fact they perfected the fraudulent electoral processes, intervened in provinces at will, and brutally suppressed the masses. What the GOU advocated was a strong and autonomous state that could not be manipulated by key domestic and foreign economic interests, conservative nationalism that would secure complete and full independence for the nation, and a revolution that would fundamentally change the country’s economic and political fabric.