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By J. R. McNeill

This publication describes and analyses the environmental historical past of the mountain parts of the Mediterranean international, concentrating on Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Morocco. the writer examines the land and its humans and concludes that groovy adjustments within the 19th and 20th centuries created the usually barren and depopulated countrysides of this day. those adjustments, he indicates, lie in the back of a lot of the social and political turbulence of contemporary instances as mountain humans got here to phrases with worsening stipulations. Written in a full of life kind, the ebook is the 1st environmental historical past of the Mediterranean quarter.

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In 1857 one killed more than ten thousand people in Lucania alone. The last serious one came in 1980, and although its epicenter was in neighboring Campania, it damaged much of the north, especially the capital city of Potenza, which in 1988 was still rebuilding. Soils throughout most of the mountains up to 1,000 meters are argillaceous (clayey) schist and flysch, and when waterlogged often slide downhill in what are known as frane. Long scars testify to the prevalence of frane throughout Basilicata, especially the eastern slopes of the Apennines, those that drain into the Ionian Sea by the Sinni, Agri, and Basento rivers.

250,000), having grown prodigiously in recent decades. The famous religious center of Konya, the nearest city to the east, is too distant to exert much sway over the western Taurus. The modest towns of Isparta, a provincial capital of about 50,000, and Egridir, a 16 De Jesus 1980; Issawi 1980, 284. 26 The Mountains of the Mediterranean World delightfully sleepy burg of 15,000, are the only other urban centers of consequence. Today Antalya serves as the chief link to the outside world, and it has only a small port.

6 Like climate, vegetation in the Mediterranean mountains varies somewhat with location and with local exposure (to sun, wind, and rain), but altitude is easily the most important factor. At least it is the most important factor in determining what might grow, because humankind (through the use of fire) and associated animals are the key factor now in what can grow. 7 In most cases maquis and garrigue formations represent degraded forest perpetuated by fire and grazing, although in some lowland locales they are probably climax vegetation.

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