By Gjert Kristoffersen
A the tip of the fourteenth century, Norway, having formerly been an autonomous state, grew to become by means of conquest a province of Denmark and remained so for 3 centuries. In1814, as a part of the fall-out from the Napoleonic wars, the rustic grew to become a principally self reliant state in the monarchy of Sweden. via this time, even though, Danish had develop into the language of presidency, trade, and schooling, in addition to of the center and higher sessions. Nationalistic Norwegians sought to reestablish local id via growing and promulgating a brand new language dependent partially on rural dialects and in part on previous Norse. the higher and center periods sought to maintain a sort of Norwegian on the subject of Danish that might be intelligible to themselves and to their neighbours in Sweden and Denmark. the talk has long past on ever on the grounds that. One result's that the normal dictionaries of Norwegian forget about pronunciation, for no model will be counted as 'received'. one other is that there was significant style and alter in Norwegian over the past one hundred eighty years, all of that's good documented. during this pioneering account of Norwegian phonology, Gjert Kristoffersen mines the facts to give an unique research of the ways that the sounds and meanings of competing languages swap and evolve.
The ebook is written in the framework of generative phonology, applying insights derived from Optimality concept. Its major, and profitable, goal is to offer the phonological method of Norwegian truly and concisely.
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Extra resources for The Phonology of Norwegian
But even if the same IPA symbol is used, the phonetic realization of this vowel is not identical in UEN and Standard Spoken Swedish. In the latter, it is normally diphthongized and pronounced with what has been described as ‘inrounded’, or compressed lips (Fant 1973: 193, Malmberg 1956: 316, Lindau 1978: 547f, Lass 1984: 88). It is also regarded as more fronted than the Norwegian vowel (Noreen 1903: 512f, 517f, Danell 1937: 36f, Malmberg 1967: 88, Elert 1970: 67). In UEN, it is monophthongal and pronounced with somewhat protruded lips, although the degree of protrusion may vary.
A much later source, Sivertsen (1967: 79) says that some older speakers will use a slightly retroflex pronunciation when the source is /rs/, while the sound used when the source is /sj, skV/ is slightly palatalized. Vanvik (1972: 146), however, does not make this distinction. In his consonant chart there is no retracted apical sibilant: the only non-anterior sibilant symbol used is [ʃ]. On p. 143f. this is described as a palato-alveolar, which I take to mean a laminal, distributed articulation.
The data presented suggest that they should be phonologically classified as Dorsal. The phonemic contrast between front and non-front vowels is thereby captured by the former being Coronal and the latter Dorsal. With respect to the contrast between central and back vowels, I shall tentatively propose that this be done by maintaining the feature [±back] under the Dorsal node, contra Clements and Hume (1995). [–back] on this interpretation will specify central vowels. Note that the need for a three-way classification arises only among the high vowels, where there are three labial vowels.