By Rune E.A. Johansson
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Additional resources for The psychology of nirvana
Through this capacity, the doors are open to a modification of the organism-for good or for bad. The human personality is conceived as governed by causal laws, and continually changing: in normal cases there is unity, to be sure, but this unity is rarely very perfect and conflicts are common.
D) We have also a group of entirely psychological attributes, corresponding to our previous findings. In this world, our consciousness is characterized by ignorance and wrong views: diffuseness and illusion, grief, sensuality, fear and desires. In nibbgna these are eradicated: nibbiina is anEsava, 'without obsessions', ni$papaEca, 'without diffuseness or illusion', asoka, 'free from sorrow', abhaya, 'without fear', viriga, 'without desireJ. The last two points describe nibbgna as a state of ethical perfection and a conscious state of realism, knowledge, calm, and detachment.
The most probable alternative is padam which is frequently found in similar contexts, nibbhapadue, accutam padam, asankhatam padam, etc. The word itself means 'step' and is therefore a word of the same class as nibbiina itself, a word signifying a transition, a change, a transformation. According to the dictionary it has also modal meanings, like 'principle', 'characteristic', 'thing', 'element'. Since one of the main functions of nibb5na is to transfer the human being from liability to rebirth to freedom from this expectation, a word like 'condition' seems to be the proper translation.