By Joan Stambaugh
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Additional resources for The real is not the rational
Essence tends of itself toward existence. e. existence. 22 For finite beings, essence does not necessarily entail existence, as it does for God. Theyin Leibniz' unusual expressionincline toward existence. To speak metaphorically, they would rather exist than not. Leibniz extricates himself from the Scylla and Charibdis of necessity and contingency or chance by positing what he calls hypothetical or consequential necessity. It applies to God's choice to create the world, and to voluntary actions in general.
This has been a sketchy description of the first three chap- Page xi ters of the study. The remaining two begin looking for alternatives to the dilemma rationalism-irrationalism. Chapter 4 turns to Heidegger who does take the non-rational (attunement, mood) seriously and who also conceives of consciousness no longer as something static possessing faculties, but as temporality, as process, a general direction which he shares with other thinkers and literary writers of this time. Chapter five then takes a bird's-eye look at Buddhism, an alternative tradition to our own, which obviates the dichotomy between rationalism and irrationalism because its prime concern was never with reason, but rather with the soteriological.
With the idea of choice according to the principle of fitness, Leibniz emphatically rejects Spinoza for whom the world follows from God. e. " In order not to get lost in the intriguing intricacies of Leibniz' arguments for the creation of the world, let us finally review his basic principles of sufficient reason, the identity of indiscernibles and preestablished harmony, and then proceed to Kant's view of causality. Those great principles of sufficient reason and of the identity of indiscernibles, change the state of metaphysics.