By S. Hörstadius (auth.), Professor Dr. G. Czihak (eds.)
Sea urchin eggs are items of ask yourself for the scholar who sees them for the 1st time lower than the microscope. The formation of the fertil ization membrane after insemination, the wonderful thing about mitotic cleavage, the stylish swimming of embryos, stay an esthetic excitement even for the eyes of pro investigators. yet sea urchin eggs produce other, simpler, benefits: they lend themselves to surgery effortlessly they usually heal completely; they are often acquired in very huge quantities and symbolize hence a really favorable fabric for biochemists and molecular embryologists. it's not dazzling that, in view of those unparalleled merits, sea urchin eggs have attracted the curiosity of innumerable biologists on the grounds that O. HERTWIG came upon the fusion of the pronuclei (amphimixy), in Paracentrotus lividus, virtually a century in the past. the aim of the current ebook is to provide, in a whole and orderly style, the big volume of knowledge which has been collected, during a hun dred years of sea urchin embryology. JOSEPH NEEDHAM, in 1930, used to be nonetheless capable of current all that used to be identified, at the moment, at the biochemistry of all attainable species of constructing eggs and embryos in his well-known "Chemical Embryology" (Cambridge collage Press) . it will not be attainable for one guy to jot down a latest model of what used to be a "Bible" for the younger embryologists of 40 years ago.
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Extra resources for The Sea Urchin Embryo: Biochemistry and Morphogenesis
The eggs are fertilized in a mixture of 100 ml of seawater and 1 ml of M/3 sodium sulfite, causing a thin membrane to develop with wide perivitelline space. Thirty minutes after insemination, the eggs are transferred to normal seawater and shaken in a test tube (MOTOMURA, 1954). Its membrane removed, the egg forms a hyaline layer and develops normally (OSANAI, 1969). 5 Egg Pigments Unfertilized H. pulcherrimus eggs contain two kinds of orange pigment: pigment granules embedded in the cortical cytoplasm and pigment distributed homogeneously throughout the endoplasm.
2) poured into the body cavity. The gametes are shed into seawater and deposited on the bottom of the beaker. When the shedding stops, the supernatant fluid is taken away and the eggs washed several times in pure seawater before using (IIDA, 1942). This method yields a large number of gametes, but the sea urchin is killed. If its survival is required, spawning must be induced by 33 e Fig. 4. Simplified apparatus to stimulate sea-urchin spawning electrically; a, sea urchin; b, cotton wool wet with seawater; c and d, stimulating lead or silver electrodes; e, beaker of seawater; f, key; g, 40- to 100-W bulb; h, 100-V electrical source, 50 or 60 cps.
L M) treatment of unfertilized sea-urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus) causes subsequent dissolution of fertilization membranes. 0) dissolve transitional fertilization membranes and prevent formation of hyaline layer on sea-urchin eggs (Psammechinus and Echinocardium) . ~ 22 volume of pronase solution is added, giving a final concentration of 1 mg per milliliter. The pronase must be added just after all the eggs have been fertilized but before the membranes have hardened. If the eggs are washed within a few minutes after the addition of pronase, they will still have a hyaline layer and develop normally.