By Robert J. Logan
Starting with a historical past of the neurophysiologic bases of either emotion and stuttering, the textual content offers a assessment of old and present wisdom pertaining to these parts and constructions of the vital frightened method contributing to inner emotional responses, exterior manifestations of these responses, and the interconnections among emotional centres, studying and the initiation and superb motor regulate of speech.
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Additional resources for The Three Dimensions of Stuttering: Neurology, Behaviour and Emotion
Traditionally, as with the rest of the limbic system, the amygdala was considered to be primarily concerned with olfactory associations in humans and lower animals (Guyton, 1976). Its contributions, especially from its basolateral nuclei, have evolved in humans to include important roles in behaviour not associated with olfaction (Guyton, 1976). According to Guyton (1976: p. 765), in human beings: The amygdala receives impulses from all portions of the limbic cortex, from the orbital surfaces for the frontal lobes, from the cingulate gyrus, and from the hippocampal gyrus.
The structures of this emotional system also have direct and indirect input into sub-cortical and cortical areas and structures responsible for the generation of language, speech and the interpretation of all other language output and input modalities. Many studies have documented that the limbic system can interfere with fluent speech as well as other voluntary motor acts. It is the contention of this manuscript that the aberrant activations and hyperactivity of motor areas identified by many imaging studies of stuttering are the result, to one degree or another, of input into other sub-cortical and cortical areas and structures by the limbic system.
Smythies (1968: p. 98) also credits the limbic system with 'executive control' and 'central co-ordinating' functions over the rest of the brain: It appears that the hippocampus, the amygdala, the septal nuclei, together with the 'limbic cortex', the hypothalamus, certain thalamic nuclei and the reticular formation may form the central co-ordinating and executive mechanism in the brain controlling such factors as memory formation, motivation, reinforcement, elaboration of emotions, [and] conditioned reflexes.