Download Ultrasound in gynecology and obstetrics by Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.) PDF

By Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

by Dr. Donald L. King The previous decade has visible the ascent of ultrasonography to a preeminent place as a diagnostic imaging modality for obstetrics and gynecology. it may be said with no qualification that sleek obstetrics and gynecology can't be practiced with no using diagnostic ultrasound, and specifically, using ultrasonogra­ phy. Ultrasonography fast and correctly offers specific, excessive­ answer pictures of the pelvic organs and gravid uterus. the standard and volume of diagnostic details received via extremely­ sonography a ways exceeds whatever formerly on hand and has had a innovative effect at the administration of sufferers. excessive­ solution static photographs allow the intrauterine prognosis of fetal development retardation and fetal abnormalities. as well as tradi­ tional pictures, more moderen dynamic imaging concepts enable observa­ tion of fetal movement, cardiac pulsation, and breathing efforts. using ultrasonography for assistance has enormously augmented the protection and software of amniocentesis. one of many nice virtues of diagnostic ultrasound has been its obvious defense. at the moment strength degrees, diagnostic ultrasound seems to be with none injurious influence. even if all of the availa­ ble proof means that it's a very secure modality and that the ease to danger ratio is especially excessive, the particular protection margin for its use Vll as but continues to be unknown. hence, practitioners are recommended to restrict its use in basic terms to these events within which real medical indica­ tions exist and actual gain to the sufferer is probably going to result.

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Artifacts may result when the ultrasound beam is not perpendicular to the skin surface, and from organ contour and image distortion due to beam width. Echoes in the near field, close to the transducer, may be lost in the "dead zone" of the beam due to continued oscillation of the crystal during the receiving phase. Newly designed low-pulsevoltage units with effective damping systems compensate for this problem. Reverberation artifacts are recognized by their periodicity and decreasing echo amplitude on the A-mode and B-mode.

The line is grounded to prevent an electric hazard. REJECT The reject control varies the amplitude threshold required to record an echo. It discriminates against low-level echoes and is used to remove "grass"-like interference at higher gain settings. GAIN The gain control amplifies the electronic signal of the received echo. Some units employ an attenuation system to achieve this effect. 18 Rejection. (a) RF signal. (b) Amplified signal with unwanted echoes and electric noise. (c) Elevation of baseline echo threshold displaying only amplified signal.

25) may prevent the obtaining of adequate information, and the best maneuver would be to scan obliquely at the edge of the scar tissue. This may occur after scarring of C-section (Cesarean section). SENSITIVITY SETTING OR ATTENUATION STUDIES As in routine EKG tracings, the ultrasonographer should establish a standard baseline sensitivity setting for each organ to avoid confusion in interpretation. After each study or section, the attenuation may be changed to differentiate various components of an organ, or cystic from solid masses.

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